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Wednesday, August 12, 2009

Mental Retardation

Definition of Mental retardation

Mental retardation: A term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They are likely to have trouble learning in school. They will learn, but it will take them longer. There may be some things they cannot learn. As many as 3 out of every 100 people have mental retardation. In fact, 1 out of every 10 children who need special education has some form of mental retardation.

There are many causes of mental retardation. The most common causes are:
Genetic conditions -- Abnormalities of chromosomes and genes. Examples of genetic conditions are Down syndrome (trisomy 21), fragile X syndrome, and phenylketonuria (PKU).
Problems during pregnancy -- When the baby does not develop normally inside the mother. For example, a woman who drinks alcohol or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may have a baby with mental retardation.

Perinatal problems -- Problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen.
Health problems -- Diseases like whooping cough, the measles, or meningitis. Mental retardation can also be caused by extreme malnutrition or being exposed to poisons like lead or mercury.
The diagnosis of mental retardation is made by looking at two main things. These are (1) the ability of a person's brain to learn, think, solve problems, and make sense of the world (intellectual functioning or IQ); and (2) whether the person has the skills he or she needs to live independently (called adaptive behavior, or adaptive functioning).

Intellectual functioning, or IQ, is usually measured by an IQ test. The average IQ score is, by definition, 100. People scoring below 70 to 75 on the IQ test are considered to have mental retardation. To measure adaptive behavior, professionals look at what a child can do in comparison to other children of his or her age. Certain skills are important to adaptive behavior. These are daily living skills (such as getting dressed, going to the bathroom, and feeding one's self), communication skills (such as understanding what is said and being able to answer) and social skills (interacting with peers, family members, adults, and others).

There are many signs of mental retardation. For example, children with mental retardation may:

sit up, crawl, or walk later than other children;
learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking,
find it hard to remember things,
not understand how to pay for things,
have trouble understanding social rules,
have trouble seeing the consequences of their actions,
have trouble solving problems, and/or
have trouble thinking logically.

About 87% of people with mental retardation will only be a little slower than average in learning new information and skills. When they are children, their limitations may not be obvious. They may not even be diagnosed as having mental retardation until they get to school. As they become adults, many people with mild retardation can live independently.
The remaining 13% of people with mental retardation score below 50 on IQ tests. These people will have more difficulty in school, at home, and in the community. A person with more severe retardation will need more intensive support his or her entire life. Every child with mental retardation is able to learn, develop, and grow.

A child with mental retardation can do well in school but is likely to need individualized help. In the US the states are responsible for meeting the educational needs of children with disabilities. For children up to age three, services are provided through an early intervention system. Staff work with the child's family to develop what is known as an Individualized Family Services Plan, or IFSP. The IFSP will describe the child's unique needs. It also describes the services the child will receive to address those needs. The IFSP will emphasize the unique needs of the family, so that parents and other family members will know how to help their young child with mental retardation. Early intervention services may be provided on a sliding-fee basis, meaning that the costs to the family will depend upon their income. In some states, early intervention services may be at no cost to parents.

For eligible school-aged children (including preschoolers), special education and related services are made available through the school system. School staff will work with the child's parents to develop an Individualized Education Program, or IEP. The IEP is similar to an IFSP. It describes the child's unique needs and the services that have been designed to meet those needs. Special education and related services are provided at no cost to parents.

Many children with mental retardation need help with adaptive skills, which are skills needed to live, work, and play in the community. Teachers and parents can help a child work on these skills at both school and home. Some of these skills include: communicating with others; taking care of personal needs (dressing, bathing, going to the bathroom); health and safety; home living (helping to set the table, cleaning the house, or cooking dinner); social skills (manners, knowing the rules of conversation, getting along in a group, playing a game); reading, writing, and basic math; and, as they get older, skills that will help them in the workplace.


abgBro said...

jebat aku tak reti nak baca omputih lor...tgok gambo aje ler...ekeke

ema mummy meen said...

aku pun.... tgk gambo jer....

POSH76 said...

sian budak2 cam gini....berbelit2 gak ler lidah wa nak speking omputeh...hehe

jebat_durhaka said...

tu artikel pasal penyakit / sindrom yang anak aku hadapi la...aku ni pon reti baca jek tp kalu suruh bercakap omputih...haram tak gheti wakakakaka